The keto diet (ketogenic) is a newfangled trend in dietary nutrition. The keto diet began to acquire the greatest popularity in 2017 and continues to this day.
The keto diet is an approach to a healthy lifestyle. Preference is given to natural food products in accordance with the needs of the human body with the presence of fats and the lowest carbohydrate content.
The ketogenic diet is an updated version of the low-carb diet.
Principles of the Keto Diet
The main principle of the keto diet is low-carb foods. The ketogenic diet is based on the body's processing of fatty acids. The breakdown of animal fat entering the body with food with the non-interference of carbohydrates is the key to a healthy diet with this method.
The low-carb keto diet is very popular with obesity, among people who want to lose weight or stay in shape.
With a minimum or complete absence of carbohydrates in the body, fat burning occurs rapidly, a person begins to lose weight. Fats begin to be removed from the body and processed into fatty acids and then into the keto body.
Ketone bodies are fat breakdown products that are produced by the liver. With the active expenditure of energy or prolonged fasting, to obtain energy, the body begins to break down its own stored fat.
The breakdown of fat and the formation of ketone bodies is called ketogenesis and is a completely natural process for the human body. Ketogenesis does not lead to drastic weight loss.
Features of the keto diet
A feature of the keto diet is the substitution of the supplied energy resource - carbohydrates for fats, or rather decay products - ketone bodies. To reorganize the body and based on individual characteristics, it is necessary to reduce the amount of consumed carbohydrates from 50 to 20 grams per day. It will take 2 to 4 weeks for the body to fully adapt to the new nutritional system. The peak form of fat burning is achieved by following a balanced diet.
A distinctive feature of the keto diet from other all kinds of diets is the limited amount of carbohydrates in the body, low protein content and the presence of fats. The daily intake of carbohydrates in food should not exceed 20 grams per day. Ketones, the by-products of animal fats that the body uses to produce energy, must have a ratio of fat to protein and carbohydrates of 2 to 1. To maintain a normal metabolism, the body must receive large amounts of fat. 75% of the calories in your daily diet should come from fat, the rest is carbohydrates and proteins. The calorie intake of products per day should not exceed 5000 kcal. The diet does not limit the time of eating, you can safely eat after 18 hours.
The less a person consumes foods high in carbohydrates, the more effective the diet is in suppressing hunger.
The main part of the daily diet should be fat, followed by proteins and last but not least - carbohydrates. The peculiarity of this diet, unlike others, is that salt intake is not limited here, which restores the balance of electrolytes.
In the early days of the diet, you should gradually reduce the amount of carbohydrates consumed.
With the strict principle of adherence to the keto diet for weight loss, a person can easily lose 3-5 kilograms of weight in a month without harming their health, and reduce the amount of adipose tissue.
Athletes are more likely to adhere to a cyclical ketogenic diet, burning fat, their bodies become more prominent, and muscle mass increases. The reason for this change lies in the transformation of the hormonal background and the increased process of formation of growth hormone. The principle of the diet is strictly regulated with the training plan.
Benefits of the Keto Diet
The benefits of the keto diet have already been scientifically proven and approved by nutritionists. In addition to losing or maintaining weight, the condition of the skin, hair, nails improves, food metabolism is normalized, metabolism improves, and immunity increases.
Studies have shown that people who are overweight and have high cholesterol, following a keto diet for 56 weeks, not only lost over 25 kilograms, but they significantly improved their blood sugar and cholesterol levels.
With caution, doctors recommend adhering to a diet for cancer patients. It is well known that cancer cells actively feed on glucose, completely excluding them from the diet and adhering to a carbohydrate-free diet, diseased cells gradually lose their activity.
For lovers of independent weight loss, without medical prescription, the easiest diet option is suitable - the keto lifestyle.
The ketogenic diet is widely used among athletes in sports that require high endurance: marathon, triathlon, cycling, extreme sports.
The diet promotes fat burning for efficient production of an energy source, thereby contributing to the conservation and economical consumption of glycogen (animal starch) during prolonged intense exertion.
The obvious advantages of a keto diet are a general improvement in well-being, emotional mood, a surge of energy, increased efficiency, increased brain activity.
The ketogenic diet is more of a healthy diet, but only healthy people can stick to it on their own. Before starting such a diet, you need to consult with a specialist, he will tell you what pitfalls there may be and how best to get out of it in case of deterioration of health.
Disadvantages of the keto diet
Compared to other weight loss diets, the ketogenic diet is more effective, but long-term adherence can have different consequences.
The disadvantage of the keto diet is that it is not suitable for all people. When glucose levels are low, the body's glycogen stores are depleted. With a sharp transition from a regular diet to a ketogenic diet, many people experience dizziness, weakness and drowsiness, and difficulties with coordination.
If the following symptoms appear, you should stop following the ketogenic diet:
- decreased performance and impaired concentration;
- increased fatigue;
- unpleasant pungent acetone odor from the mouth;
- difficulties with the digestion process;
- poor blood counts;
- frequent urination;
- persistent dry mouth;
- decreased appetite.
- deficiency of minerals and vitamins in the body.
Against the background of high-fat ketone nutrition, there may be an excess of ammonia in the blood, which leads to toxic poisoning of the body and disruption of hormonal levels.
In the first week of the diet, you may feel chills or fever, fatigue, mild nausea, irritability. You need to drink as much water as possible. Symptoms usually disappear within a week, and the body gradually adapts to getting energy from fat stores.
To adjust nutrition, special test strips are used, which display the level of ketones and glucose in the blood.
List of allowed and prohibited foods on the keto diet
Eating this way must be approached wisely. There is a specific list of permitted and prohibited foods on the keto diet.
First, let's take a look at what you can eat with the keto diet:
- You can eat all types of meat: beef, pork, chicken, turkey, bacon.
- It is allowed to eat seafood and all fatty fish: salmon, chum salmon, mackerel.
- A wide range of dairy products: fat cottage cheese and yoghurt, cream, cheese, butter.
- You can add any seasonings during cooking. Vegetable salads can be seasoned with olive oil or vegetable oil.
- Nuts, berries and seeds are allowed for a snack.
- From fruits allowed: avocado, lemon, lime, but if you want something different, it is quite acceptable.
- Chicken eggs.
- The diet must contain water, tea without sugar, coffee, mineral water. You must drink at least 2 liters of liquid per day.
- You can drink dry wine and strong alcohol: a glass of dry wine contains no more than 4-5 grams of carbohydrates, and they are completely absent in vodka.
- Of vegetables, preference is given to low-carbohydrate vegetables, according to the principle: that which grows in the ground cannot be (carrots, beets, potatoes), and that which can be above the ground (cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage, zucchini, green onions, lettuce). All fatty foods go well with greens.
Keto Diet Don'ts:
- all kinds of legumes and grains - peas, beans, beans, corn;
- low-fat dairy products - low-fat cottage cheese, milk, cream, yogurt, fermented baked milk, yoghurts, kefir, varenets;
- sugar, sugary drinks, reconstituted juices, soda, candy;
- it is unacceptable to use snacks, chips and crackers;
- all starchy vegetables: potatoes, pumpkin;
- will have to give up rice, cereals and pasta;
- food made with white flour: pastries, muffins, croissants, buns, pasta.
It is necessary to completely exclude the consumption of sugar, some fruits and dried fruits.
Contraindications to the keto diet
People with diseases of the nervous system, with diseases accompanying the destruction of nerve cells, patients with diabetes mellitus must be approached with caution.
There are contraindications for the keto diet for humans:
- suffering from epilepsy;
- diseases associated with disorders of the motor organs;
- the presence of any chronic diseases of the liver, kidneys;
- gastrointestinal tract;
- with high cholesterol levels.
The ketone diet is not recommended for pregnant women or for certain medications.
Keto Diet: Menu for the Week
Nutritionists advise using the principle of diversity. A classic example of a keto diet for a week.
- breakfast - fatty cottage cheese without sugar and flour;
- lunch - any meat with a vegetable side dish;
- for dinner - mushrooms or chicken with herbs.
- breakfast - avocado salad with sour cream;
- for lunch - meatballs with vegetables;
- in the evening - grilled fish with asparagus.
- breakfast - curd salad with vegetables;
- for lunch - turkey meat with broccoli;
- For dinner, you can make an American fish salad with celery stalks.
- in the morning - scrambled eggs and bacon and fatty yogurt;
- for lunch - chicken stewed in sour cream sauce with a vegetable side dish;
- The dinner will consist of river fish.
- for breakfast - sugar-free cottage cheese;
- for lunch - green buckwheat with meat;
- in the evening - baked meat with vegetables.
- breakfast - avocado salad dressed with yogurt;
- for lunch - chicken cutlets with a vegetable side dish;
- for dinner - stews and herbs.
- breakfast - boiled eggs and fatty cottage cheese;
- for lunch - stewed veal with mushrooms;
- in the evening - chicken breast with fresh vegetables.
For an afternoon snack, you can eat nuts, avocados, berries, cheese, drink mineral water.
Recipes from the keto diet menu
The most common and simple dish on the keto menu is scrambled eggs and bacon or cheese for breakfast. For lunch, you can eat a portion of any meat with herbs, green beans. Fish can be eaten in any form with vegetables for dinner. For a snack, you can eat a handful of nuts. Portions can be both large and small, as long as the body is saturated.
Here are some simple, complete meals that don't require any additional snacks.
Fish salad:any fatty fish is stewed or boiled, cut into pieces, add: eggs, pickled cucumbers, onions, mayonnaise or 20% sour cream, you can add a fewlettuce stalks.
Chicken with bacon, stewed in sour cream with mushrooms:strips of bacon are fried in olive or sunflower oil, removed from the pan as they cook, and chicken pieces are placed in their placebreasts, fried for a few minutes until golden brown, add: water, chopped onions, mushrooms, fried bacon, sour cream, spices and everything is stewed for a few more minutes.
Curd salad:fresh cucumber, onion and Chinese cabbage are finely chopped, salt and seasoning are added, let sit for 10 minutes, so that vegetables give juice and add fatty curd, pour oversour cream mixed with mayonnaise.
There are a lot of recipes for keto diet, everyone can choose the best option for themselves from the allowed products.
This diet can be delicious and varied.
Quitting the keto diet
After completing the course, in order not to undermine health and to usefully exit the keto diet, it is necessary to gradually reduce the amount of fat consumed. To maintain metabolism and to avoid getting the body into a state of stress, you need to gradually increase the intake of carbohydrates and proteins in small portions.
Along with fats, the intake of calories is reduced. Vegetables, cereals are gradually introduced into the diet, avoiding sugar and flour products. The daily intake of carbohydrates in the first days of exiting the diet should be from 70 to 100 grams, it is desirable to leave protein intake at the same level.
Drink plenty of water to stay hydrated.
Nutritionists' opinions on the keto diet
Nutritionists consider the ketogenic diet universal not only for weight loss and weight loss, but also recommend it for health improvement. With proper and strict adherence to dietary prescriptions, the diet should contain: 80% fat, 10% protein and 10% carbohydrates.
Dietitians have written over 30 scientific articles, and many years of research have shown that the ketogenic diet significantly accelerates the reduction of insulin in the blood, a hormone that promotes the accumulation of subcutaneous fat. Diet improves appetite control, diet suppresses the production of the hormone warming, which provokes hunger. The muscle mass remains the same, the amount of subcutaneous fat is reduced.
Scientific studies have shown that for the treatment of certain cardiovascular diseases, the ketogenic diet is a non-drug treatment.
Eating good nutrition is not only the key to losing weight, but also has a beneficial effect on the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, heart, liver and kidneys.
A balanced diet rich in fat and moderate in protein and carbohydrates for a long time, supports a healthy lifestyle, prolongs youth, helps to maintain good physical shape. Doctors recommend walking more in the fresh air, a full night's sleep, and there are only natural products.